|Field trip B26|
"NEOTECTONIC TRANSECT MOESIA - APULIA"
Sofia – Doupnitsa – Rila – Rila Monastery – Padesh –
Blagoevgrad (about 190 km)
Leader: Ivan Zagorchev
Stop 3.2. Near Doupnitsa: panorama of the Rila horst
The Rila horst has been uplifted relative to the Blagoevgrad and Dzherman grabens with an upthrow of more than 3 km since Late Miocene times. The moderately inclined to steep bounding Klisoura normal fault strikes NE,and has an angle of dip between 30 and 70o to NW. It has an outstanding geomorphic expression.The stop is situated over a planation surface that represents a part of the Early – Middle Miocene peneplain. It gradually lowers to the South,and is subsided in the Dzherman graben to altitudes about and below sea level, for to be uplifted to more than 2500 m in the Rila horst.
Stop 3.4. Exit of the town of Rila (sign) on the road to Rila Monastery
Panorama of beautiful erosion forms: the hill "Krusta" and adjacent hills formed in the Palaeogene conglomerate and sandstone of the Padala Formation are the majestic natural gates towards Rila Monastery.The Padala graben is filled in by the 350 – 400 m thick Padala Formation.It consists of coarse breccia and conglomerate interbedded by sandstone with abundant coalefied plant debris (parts of leaves and stems).The pebbles in the conglomerate come from the typical basement rocks that occur in Rila Mountain: biotite gneisses and migmatites, amphibolites, marble, granite, pegmatite, quartz, diorite. The Tertiary age has been suggested as early as in 1844 by Ami Boue. G. Bonchev reported for the first time (1912) the presence of a coal lens.An Early Oligocene age has been proven by S. Chernyavska with typical palynomorphs.Thus, the Padala Formation was formed in a part of the alluvial to lacustrine system that was feeding the Early Oligocene gulf of the Piyanets and Padesh grabens. The Padala graben has a post-sedimentary character.However, some of the normal faults at its northern periphery have pre-dated the sedimentation, and others have been active during the sediment deposition. Post-sedimentary steep normal faults are observed at the eastern board (at the monastery branch "Orlitsa") and within the sediments of the graben. Moderately-inclined and low-angle normal faults are also present.
Stop 3.7. Rila Monastery; 1103 m altitude
Rila Monastery is the biggest monastery of Bulgaria and the most important national spiritual center in the Middle Ages and the National Revival in the 18th and 19th centuries.It was founded in the 10th Century by the Saint Ivan Rilski
(St. John of Rila), and has been ravaged and set to fire several times.The oldest building preserved is the Hrelyu Tower (1335) built by a local feudal lord.
The other buildings are dated from the first half of the 19th Century.Important manuscripts, treasures and frescoes can be seen in the church and the museum.